Introduction to Python and features

Interpreted: Python is constructed at runtime by the interpreter. In Python, we need not to compile your program before executing it. It is almost similar to PERL and PHP.

Interactive: We can definitely sit at a Python prompt and we can interact with the interpreter straightaway to write your programs.

Object Oriented: Python supports Object-Oriented style or Object oriented programming or technique of programming that encapsulates code within objects.

Beginner’s Language: Python is a excellent language for the beginner level programmers and python supports and promotes the improvement of big range of applications or programs from simple text processing and execution to WWW browsers to games etc.

Features of Python

Easy-to-learn – Python had some keywords. It is a simple structure, and Python has a very clearly defined syntax. This allows the student to pick up the language quickly. It is very easy to learn.

Easy-to-read – Python programs are more clearly and efficiently defined and visible to the eyes.

Easy-to-maintain – Python’s source code is fairly and adequately defined and it is easy-to-maintain.

A broad standard library – Python’s bulk of the library is very portable and cross-platform compatible with UNIX, Windows, and Macintosh. It has a bulk library and is very compatible with UNIX, Windows, and Macintosh.

Interactive Mode – Python has support for an interactive mode which allows interactive testing and debugging and deployment of snippets or pieces of code. We can definitely sit at a Python prompt and we can interact with the interpreter straightaway to write your programs.

Portable – Python has the same interface on all or any type of platforms. Python can run on any wide variety of hardware platforms.

Extendable – These modules enables programmers to add or to customize their tools to be more efficient and effective. We can add a low-level modules to the Python interpreter. These modules are very capable of being more efficient and lengthened.

Java Features and its importance

Java Features

Java Features(Importance)

The main aim of Java programming language generation and Java Features was to make it portable that means it can be easily carried. It is simple and secured programming language. A part from this, there are also some important Java Features which play most important role in the popularity of this Java Programming language. The Following are the list of most important features in Java programming. The Java Features are simple and secured and also easy to understand. The features or Characteristics of Java are also known as Java Buzzwords. Mainly there are 12 Java Features (Java Buzz words). They are:

Java Features1. Simple
2. Object-Oriented
3. Portable
4. Platform independent
5. Secured
6. Robust
7. Architecture-neutral
8. Dynamic
9. Interpreted
10. High Performance
11. Multithreaded
12. Distributed

Java Features1. Simple(Java Features)

Java is easy to learn. If you learn the basic concepts of Object Oriented Programming through Java, it would be easy to be master or expert in Java. Java is easy to understand and the syntax are very clear to understand.

2. Object-Oriented

Java is Object-oriented programming language. Every existing thing in Java is an object. Object-oriented means to organize the software as a combination of different types that consolidates both data and behaviour of an objects. It can be easily extended since it is depended on the Object model.

3. Portable

Java is portable because it makes easy you to carry the java bytecode into any platform. It is easily carried and movable so, Java is said to be Portable. In Java compiler it is written in ANSI C with a clean portability or flexibility boundary, that is a POSIX subset. Being architecture-neutral and having no implementation or execution dependent forms or conditions of the specification or blueprints makes Java portable.

4. Platform independent

Disparate many other like C and C++. When Java is compiled, it is not compiled into platform specific machine or platform dependent machine, rather into platform independent and divided into byte code. This byte code is distributed and interpreted by the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) on every platform it is being run on.

5. Secured

With Java’s secure feature it enables to create virus-free, damage-free systems.  Java is familiar with its security and its Flexibility.

6. Robust

Java makes an struggle to assassinate the error collapsed situations by indicating mainly on compile time error and runtime error checkings. Robust means strong and Java is robust because Java has Strong memory management and automatic garbage collection.

7. Architecture-neutral

Java is architecture neutral because it has no implementation dependent features for example size of primitive data types is fixed.

8. Dynamic

Java is designed to be more dynamic than C or C++ since it is considered to adjust to an deriving or growing environment. Java programs or records can carry comprehensive amount of run-time instructions that can be used to authenticate and resolve approaches to objects on run-time.

9. Interpreted

Java FeaturesJava compiler translates the code or program into bytecode and then the Java Interpreter generates machine code from bytecode that can be executed directly by the machine and that is known as running of Java program.

10. High Performance

The use of Just-In-Time compilers, Java approves high performance.

11. Multithreaded

Java FeaturesIn Java, the multithreaded feature that is possible to write programs and execute the multiple tasks or requests by the same user simultaneously.

12. Distributed

Java is designed to be distributed environment of the internet. RMI(Remote Method Invocation) and EJB(Enterprise JavaBeans) are used for development of distributed applications. Java is distributed because it promotes users to create distributed applications in java.

Importance of Java applications, Editions and its uses

Importance of JavaWhere Java is used?(Importance of Java and its Uses)

According to Sun, There are 3 billion devices which will run java. Many devices are using Java currently. They are some uses and the importance of Java are:

Importance of Java1. Desktop Applications like media player, antivirus etc run through importance of java.
2. Importance of Java is used for development of Web Applications for indian railways etc.
3. The importance of Java also used for Enterprise Applications for bank applications(e-banking) etc.
4. Mobile Applications
5. Embedded System designing
6. Smart Card (e-cards)
7. It is used for implementation of Robotics
8. It is used for Online Gaming applications etc.

Types of Java Applications and Importance of Java Applications

Mainly there are 4 types of Java applications that are created using java programming:

1) Standalone Application
2) Web Application
3) Enterprise Application
4) Mobile Application

1.  Standalone Application:

Standalone applications are also known as desktop applications. These are also known as window-based applications. These are traditional or conventional softwares that we need to use on every machine. For Example standalone applications are: Media players, antivirus etc. AWT(Abstract Window Toolkit) and Swing are used for creating or building standalone applications in java.

2. Web Application:

An application that runs on the server side and creates dynamic web pages, are called as web applications. At present Servlets, jsp(Java server pages), struts, Spring, Hibernate, jsf (Java Server pages) etc. technologies are used for building web applications in java.

3. Enterprise Application:

Importance of JavaAn application that is distributed in nature or allocated in attributes, that are used for development of banking applications etc. is called enterprise application. Enterprise applications advantages are high level security, load balancing and clustering. EJB(Enterprise JavaBeans) are used for building enterprise applications in java.

4. Mobile Application:

Importance of JavaAn applications that is used for creating or building mobile devices are known as Mobile Applications. At present Android and Java Mobile Edition (J2ME or Java ME) are used for creating mobile applications.

Types of Java Platforms / Editions(Importance of Java Editions)

Generally we discuss only about 3 editions but there are 4 platforms or editions in Java. They are:

1) Java SE (Java Standard Edition)
2) Java EE (Java Enterprise Edition)
3) Java ME (Java Micro Edition)
4) JavaFx

Importance of JavaImportance of Java1) Java SE (Java Standard Edition)

It is a java programming Standard platform. It includes Java programming APIs(Application Programming Interfaces) like java.lang,,, java.util, java.sql, java.math etc. It also includes some core topics like OOPs means Object oriented programming concepts, String, Regex, Exception, Inner classes, Multithreading, I/O Stream, Networking, AWT(Abstract Window Toolkit), Swing, Reflection, Collection etc.

2) Java EE (Java Enterprise Edition)

It is an enterprise platform. It is mainly used for development of web applications and enterprise applications. It is to create top of Java SE platform. In Java, we use topics like Servlet, JSP, Web Services, EJB, JPA etc. for implementing Enterprise applications.

3) Java ME (Java Micro Edition)

It is a micro platform. The importance of java is mainly used for the development of mobile applications.

4) JavaFx

It is a Software Platform and used for creating and developing desktop applications. It is used for the development and importance of java of rich internet applications(RIAs). It uses light-weight user interface that is API(Application User Interface).

Introduction for Java and Overview(History of Java- James Gosling)

Introduction for Java

Introduction for Java

Introduction for Java

Java is Object oriented language because it supports all oops concepts. We cover the topics that the Introduction for Java and History of Java and its basics.

It is a high level programming language and it is not understandable by machine in introduction for java. Java was firstly developed by Sun Microsystems which was initiated by “James Gosling” and java was released in 1995 as core component of the ‘Sun Microsystems’ Java platform (Java 1.0 [J2SE]) and later it is implemented and undertaken by Oracle. And now we are using or latest version of java is Java 8.0 [J2SE]. There are 2 more versions java 9(older version) and java 10(latest version).

There are three latest J2 versions of java they are:
1. J2SE
2. J2EE
3. J2ME

1. J2SE: It is a Java Standard edition. The latest version of Java Standard edition is Java SE 8.It can work on various types of platforms.
2. J2EE: J2EE means Java Enterprise Edition. It is used for enterprise applications. Java EE are increasing day by day.

Introduction for Java
3. J2ME: J2ME means Java Mobile Edition. It is used for the implementation mobile applications.

Java can run anywhere it is a slogan given by Sun Microsystems “Write once, run anywhere”, or sometimes it maybe “write once, run everywhere”. It was a catchphrase said by Sun Microsystems because they want say benefits of Java programming language.

History and Introduction for Java

Introduction for Java

Java was first initiated by James Gosling. James Gosling originated Java project in June 1991 for use of his many set-top box designs and programs. The Java language, firstly called as ‘Oak’ after an oak tree that stood outside Gosling’s office, also went by the name ‘Green’ and ended up later being renamed as Java, from a list of random words.

Sun Microsystems released first version of Java in 1995 the version is Java 1.0. Java aasured Write Once, Run Anywhere (WORA), it providing no cost and it runs on popular or various types of platforms.

Sun Microsystems announced Java for free and open source software for everyone under the terms of the GNU General Public License (GPL) in 13th November 2006.

On 8th May 2007, Sun Microsystems finished the process and making of all Java’s core code for free and open-source, seperately from a small segment of code to which Sun did not hold the copyright.

James Gosling is known as the “Father of Java“. At present James Gosling is working as chief technology officer at Sun Microsystems. But now java is under taken by Oracle. Java was the first programming language that was designed with internet in mind and which is used to highly distributed applications. Java is First initiates by James Gosling later it is worked by some others.



Introduction to Algorithms and its basics in data structures

algorithmsThe algorithm is a word it is derived from the name “Al-Khawarizmi“. Al-Khawarizmi is a 9th century Persian mathematician and author of the book used for calculation by integration and balancing. But in these days the word algorithm is used for step-by-step method to solve a problems. But in algorithms everytime we will not use that step-by-step method because some cases are complicated.

An algorithm can be created in any programming language. Algorithms are not dependent of basic or any languages and algorithms are generally created.

Categories of an Algorithms

algorithmsSearch– Search algorithm is used for searching an item or component in data strcuture.

Sort– Sort algorithm is used for sorting an item or component in ascending or descending(certain) order.

Insert– This is used for inserting an element or an item in a data structure.

Update– This is used to update the actual or current existing element in data structure.

Delete– This is used to delete the current element in data structure.

Features of an Algorithm

Not every process is an algorithm. An algorithm should accept some following six features in data structures:

  1. Definiteness
  2. Finiteness
  3. Input
  4. Output
  5. Feasibleness
  6. Independent

1. Definiteness:  Algorithm must be clear and definite. In this steps are definitely stated or defined(precisely). Each and every steps and their inputs and outputs must be clear and definite.

2. Finiteness: An algorithm breaks after a finite set of instructions or programs when they are carried out that means it aborts after a finite set of programs.

3. Input: Algorithm must have 0 input or more distinct or clear-cut inputs. It collects the input.

4. Output: Algorithm must have 1 output or more distint or clear-cut outputs and it should not match with the applicable or appropriate output. It outcomes or produces the output.

5. Feasibleness: It means it must be suitable with possible or available resources.

6. Independent: An algorithm should have step-by-step directions, which should not be dependent of any programming code. These results are differently or uniquely defined.

How to Create an Algorithm?

What is an Algorithm?There are no clear-cut standards for creating an algorithms. Rather, it is problem and it is not an resource independent. Algorithms are not used for writing an programming code.

We know that every programming languages can have essential code constructs like loops (do, for, while), flow-control (if-else), etc. These are very common instructions will be used to create an algorithm.

Generally an algorithm is used in a step-by-step procedure, but algorithm will not use this procedure every time. Algorithm is a technique and is executed after the issue is clear-cut. That means, an algorithm is used to design a explanation and clarification for the issues in an well-defined way.






Introduction for Data Structures and Algorithms – Overview


Structures and Algorithms

Data Structure is a way of compiling and coordinating data in such a way that we can perform operations on these data in an accurate way.

Interface: Each and every data structure has an interface. It implements the set of operations that a data structure holds. It only implements the list of authorized operations, type of parameters they can acquire and return type of these operations.

DeploymentDeployment provides the internal depiction of a data structure that means the internal representations.

Aspects of a Data Structure:

These are the three main Characteristics of a Data Structures and Algorithms. They are:

1. Definiteness

2.Time Complexity

3.Space Complexity


Definiteness: Data structure arrangement should arrange and implement its interface definitely.

Structures and algorithmsTime Complexity: The Running time and  the execution or achievement time of operations of data structure must be as low as possible.

Space Complexity: The usage of memory should be as little as possible in data structure operations.

Use for Data Structure:

The applications are getting complicated and data rich or heavy, there are three common problems that applications facing now-a-days.

Data Search: Suppose consider an inventory of 1 million components of a store. If the application is to search an component, it has to search an component in 1 million components every time will slow down the search. As data grows up, search will becomes inactive or slow.

Processor speed: Inspite of that Processor speed is being very high, decreases finite if the data grows to billion records.

Multiple requests: The users they can search data concurrently in an internet, at that time even a quick server can get slow when the users are searching the data.

To clairfy the above-mentioned problems, data structures come to recovery. Data can be standardized in a data structure in such a way that all components may not be required to be searched, and the required data can be searched almost directly.

Execution Time Cases:

Structures and AlgorithmsThere are three cases which are consistently used or need to correlate distinct data structure’s execution time in a relative manner.They are three case complexities:

1.Worst Case

2.Average Case

3.Best Case

1.Worst Case:  Where a particular data structure operation takes more time for execution is worst case.

2.Average Case: Illustrating the average execution time of an operations.

3.Best Case: Illustrating the least execution time of an operations.

Basic Terminologies in Data Structures and Algorithms:

Data– These are set of values.

Data Component– These are single unit values.

Group Items– Data items splits into sub items are known as Group items.

Elementary Items– Which Data items that cannot be splits into sub items are known as Elementary Items.

Attribute and Entity– An entity is that which consist of certain attributes or properties, which may be assigned values.

Entity Set– Entities of similar attributes form an entity set.

Field– It is a single elementary unit of instruction defining an attribute of an entity.

Record– It is a collection of field values in a given entity.

File– It is a collection of records of entities in a given entity set.